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Representation as string. A class can regulate how Python renders its occasions as strings by means of exclusive solutions repr , str , format , (v3 only) bytes , and (v2 only) unicode .

Comparison, hashing, and use in a Boolean context. A class can control how its situations compare with other objects (solutions lt , le , gt , ge , eq , ne ), how dictionaries use them as keys and sets use them as associates ( hash ), and whether they assess to true or fake in Boolean contexts ( nonzero in v2, bool in v3).

Attribute reference, binding, and unbinding. A course can control accessibility to its instances’ characteristics (reference, binding, unbinding) through specific procedures getattribute , getattr , setattr , and delattr . An occasion is callable, just like a purpose object, if its class has the specific process simply call .

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Table four-one documents the standard-reason specific strategies. Table 4-one. Normal-function special procedures. bytes. In v ) calls x .

bytes() , if present. If a course supplies each unique methods bytes and str , the two need to return equivalent strings (of bytes and textual content sort, respectively).

call. When you phone x ([ args. ]) , Python translates the operation into a connect with to x .

connect with([ args. ]) . The arguments for the get in touch with operation correspond to the parameters for the phone technique, minus the very first.

The very first parameter, conventionally termed self , refers to x , and Python supplies it implicitly and routinely, just as in any other phone to a certain process. dir. When you connect with dir( x ) , Python translates the operation into a get in touch with to x . dir() , which need to return a sorted record of x ‘s attributes.

If x ‘s class does not have a dir , then dir( x ) does its personal introspection to return a list of x ‘s characteristics, striving to generate applicable, rather than comprehensive, information. del. Just ahead of x disappears for the reason that of garbage assortment, Python phone calls x . del() to let x finalize by itself. If del is absent, Python performs no exclusive finalization upon rubbish-gathering x (this is the standard case: extremely several lessons will need to define del ). Python ignores the return price of del and performs no implicit connect with to del strategies of course C ‘s superclasses. C .

del should explicitly execute any wanted finalization, which includes, if will need be, by delegation. For instance, when class C has a base class B to finalize, the code in C . del should simply call tremendous( C , self).

del() (or, in v ). Note that the del system has no immediate connection with the del assertion, as coated in “del Statements”. del is commonly not the finest tactic when you want well timed and assured finalization. For this kind of requirements, use the try / ultimately statement lined in “test/ultimately” (or, even superior, the with assertion, protected in “The with Assertion”. Scenarios of lessons defining del cannot participate in cyclic-garbage assortment, included in “Rubbish Selection”. Consequently, you ought to be notably careful to avo > del only when there is no possible alternate. delattr. At just about every ask for to unbind attribute x. y (typically, a del assertion del x. y ), Python phone calls x . delattr(‘ y ‘) . All the downsides > setattr also apply to delattr . Python ignores the return worth of delattr .

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